Three questionnaires were administered in this study: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) measured students’ resilience levels, the Brief COPE assessed coping strategies, and the Big Five Personality Inventory examined students’ personality traits.

The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was developed by Kathryn M. Connor and Jonathan R.T. Davidson to measure resilience among Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients. The CD-RISC inventory that we selected is the 25-point inventory with a 0–4 scale. A higher score reflects a higher level of resilience [19]. Brief COPE is a 14-subscale inventory with two items for each subscale, developed by Charles S. Carver for assessing coping strategies. It is a shortened version of the previously developed Cope Inventory. The Brief COPE inventory was used to elucidate the coping mechanisms generally used by respondents. Brief COPE has a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.68–0.90 [20]. The Big Five Personality is an inventory developed through a lexical approach; it attempts to categorize five dimensions of personality: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. To measure the level of each personality dimension for this study, respondents were asked to complete a 50-item questionnaire with 1–5 Likert scales [21].

Prior to their use in this study, both the CD-RISC and the Brief COPE inventories were translated from English to Bahasa Indonesia and back-translated to ensure consistency. Following back-translation, we compared the final Bahasa Indonesia versions of the questionnaires to the original versions to ensure their comparable meaning. The Big Five Personality questionnaire used in this study had previously been validated in an Indonesian setting [22].

In addition to questionnaires, we collected grade point average (GPA) data on respondents’ academic achievements from the study program administrators; the maximum GPA is 4.00.

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