Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions version 22.0 for Windows, Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp). Quantitative data were described using the mean ± standard deviation, and t-tests or rank sum tests were used to test the hypothesis. Categorical data were described by the number of cases and percentages, and Chi-square (χ2) or Fisher’s exact tests were used to test the hypothesis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival, and the log-rank test was used to evaluate differences between the survival curves. Statistical significance was considered to exist when p < 0.05.

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