The FOPR test was performed using a stereo HMD system (Oculus Rift DK1, Oculus VR, Irvine, CA, USA) and a three-dimensional development platform (Vizard 4.0; WorldViz, Santa Barbara, CA, USA) controlled by a desktop workstation running Windows 7 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) that was equipped with a high-end graphics card (NVIDIA GTX 760Ti; NVIDIA, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The screen resolution was 1280 × 800 (640 × 800 per eye), and a built-in three-degrees-of-freedom sensor was used to track head movements. When the sensor is turned off and on, evaluations of FOP and FOR are possible, respectively.

A white fixation cross was displayed at the centre of the screen before each trial. During the FOP condition, a research occupational therapist instructed the participants to constantly look at the white fixation cross between each trial. As the white cross disappeared, the target was presented at the same time. During the FOR condition, the HMD centre, identified by the embedded sensor, was displayed as a red cross on the VR. Before each trial, the patients were asked to move their heads so that the red cross was aligned with the white fixation cross. Once this occurs, the white fixation cross would disappear, and the target would be presented. The targets where either red or blue spheres that were presented at predefined locations in the VR environment (see FOP measurement). The location of the target was chosen randomly in each trial. Both colours appeared in equal frequency and were equally presented on the right and left sides. Participants were instructed to click the left or right button of a computer mouse as fast as possible when they saw a blue or red target, respectively. After a click, the target immediately disappeared. If participants failed to find the target or did not click a button within a time limit (FOP measurement: 5 s, FOR measurement: 10 s), the test automatically proceeded to the next trial. After each trial, auditory feedback for correct and wrong responses was provided. The inter-trial interval varied between 0.5 and 1.5 s, and the FOPR test took about 10–20 min to accomplish.

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