Inclusion criteria: 1.) Pregnant women > 18 years, 2.) Written informed consent, 3.) Originally from endemic countries and areas for Schistosomiasis. Annotation: The corresponding countries of origin were in Africa and the Middle East.

Exclusion criteria: 1.) Fetal structural malformations, 2.) Fetal chromosomal aberrations, 3.) Multiple pregnancy. Annotation: Patients with placental pathology due to any known cause and any other medical condition affecting fetal growth were excluded.

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