The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is used to evaluate anxiety and depression [24]. HADS is divided into an anxiety subscale (HADS-A) and a depression subscale (HADS-D). Each subscale contains seven items that are scored from 0 to 3, which give a total subscale score from 0 to 21. A higher HADS score indicates that the person is more depressive or more anxious. The Japanese version of the HADS has been validated and was used in the present study [25].

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