The Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) was created to assess the severity of insomnia on the basis of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for insomnia [15]. The AIS consists of eight items rated on a 4-point scale (0 = on problem at all, 1 = slightly problematic, 2 = markedly problematic, 3 = extremely problematic). The cutoff score used to identify pathological insomnia was previously determined as a score of 6 points [16]. The Japanese version of the AIS has been validated and was used in the present study [17].

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