The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a self-report instrument for measuring a patient’s daytime sleepiness [13]. It consists of eight questions, with a 4-point scale (scored 0–3) being used for each question. The total score is the sum of points from each question (i.e., 0–24) with a higher score indicating stronger subjective daytime sleepiness. The Japanese version of the ESS (JESS) has been validated and was used in the present study [14].

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