The color differences between shade samples of each ceramic systems and each dentine or enamel sample (n = 16) were calculated using both the CIELAB (ΔEab) and CIEDE2000 (ΔE00) color difference formulas [18, 19]:

where ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* are the differences in the respective coordinates for a pair of samples.

where ΔL′, ΔC′ and ΔH′ are the differences in lightness, chroma and hue for a pair of samples in CIEDE2000.

Coverage error (CE) was calculated as the mean value of the minimal color differences (ΔEmin) among the color of dentine or enamel samples and the color representatives (shades) of each ceramic system, as follows [27]:

where ΔEmin was expressed as ΔEab or ΔE00, depending on the color difference formula used, and n represents the number of dentine or enamel samples.

CE values were compared with clinically relevant 50:50% Perceptibility Thresholds—PT—(ΔE00 = 0.8; ΔE*ab = 1.2) and 50:50% Acceptability Thresholds—AT—(ΔE00 = 1.8; ΔE*ab = 2.7), as reported in a multi-center study [25].

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