To determine whether the differences between the two sets of data are statistically significant, a two-tailed homoscedastic t test was applied. *, #, &p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant and **, ##, &&p < 0.01 was considered to be extremely significant; otherwise, it is not significant. Values are reported as the mean ± standard deviation (SD). All in vitro experiments were at least performed three times. In animal experiments, the power calculated by GPower software is higher than 80%, which indicated the probability of avoiding type 2 error is higher than 80%. Therefore, when the sample size is 6, the experimental conclusion is reliable.

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