Three short-term repeated reflectance measurements in the 380–780 nm range (without replacement; over a black background) were performed for each sample inside a completely dark room using a spectroradiometer (SpectraScan PR 670; Photo Research, Syracuse, NY, USA), a fiber-coupled Xe-Arc light source (66485-300; Newport Corporation, Irvine, CA, USA) and a Spectrally Calibrated Reflectance Standard (SRS-3; Photo Research, Syracuse, NY, USA). Between the samples and the black background, a saturated sucrose solution (refractive index n = 1.5 approximately) was interposed. The spectroradiometer was placed 40 cm away from the samples and the illuminating/measuring geometry corresponded to CIE 45°/0° (Fig. 3). Spectral reflectance values were converted into CIE L*a*b* color coordinates using the CIE 2º Standard Observer and the CIE D65 Standard Illuminant.

Experimental set-up used for objective color measurements of the samples

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