In the meta-analysis, we will not record the findings of the sample as the pooled effect estimate if there is an event of major scientific, analytical, or empirical variability. Using a standard Chi-square test (significance level of α = 0.1), we will recognize the heterogeneity. Using the I2 statistics, inconsistency across studies will be quantified. It is considered to be a high level of inconsistency if an I2 statistic is 75% or more. If there is significant variability, we will aim to identify potential explanations for this by analyzing the features of the specific study and other subgroups. Subgroup analyses of factors such as gender, age, country, type, and mode of intervention and outcome measures (or different time points) will be carried out to explore the interaction between them.

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