Blood pressure was obtained by trained observers using Accoson® mercury sphygmomanometer. Observers received training on blood pressure measurement using the British Hypertension Society Blood Pressure Measurement Educational Video [16]. They measured brachial blood pressure by auscultation of the Korotkoff sounds at the non-dominant arm in accordance with the 2013 guidelines of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) [17]. Participants were allowed to sit and rest for 5 min after which 5 BP readings are obtained at an interval of 30 to 60 s. Systolic and phase V diastolic blood pressures are determined to the nearest 2 mm Hg. Standard cuffs with 12 × 24 cm inflatable bladders are used for subjects whose arm circumference is less than 31 cm, and 15 × 35 cm for those with arm circumference greater than 31 cm.

A participant’s clinic BP is an average of the 5 consecutive BP measurements.

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