Relevant data were extracted from each of the studies (Table (Table1),1), this includes: (i) study design; (ii) treatment; (iii) reported adverse effects; (iv) treatment duration; (v) ME/CFS case definition; (vi) country; (vii) sample size; (viii) age of participants; (ix) sex, percentage of female participants; (x) illness duration; (xi) body mass index; (xii) weight; (xiii) duration of treatment; (xiv) washout period; (xv) treatment intervention; (xvi) control intervention; (xvii) fatigue outcome; (xviii) fatigue result.

Summary of study and patient characteristics



overly stimulated,

mild loss of appetite, heartburn, increased incidence of gas and an odd taste and dryness in mouth

ALC: 30

PLC: 30

ALC + PLC: 30

ALC: 37 (11)

PLC: 38 (11)

ALC + PLC: 42 (12)

ALC: 76.7%

PLC: 76.7%

ALC + PLC: 76.7%

ALC: 5.5 (1.0–23.0)a

PLC: 3.0 (0.5–25.0)a

ALC + PLC: 6.0 (1.0–21.0)a

aMedian (range)

ALC, Acetyl-l-Carnitine; BMI, Body Mass Index; CO, Cross-over design; Con, Control; NA, Not Applicable; NR, Not Recorded; OPT, Open labelled pilot trial; PLC, Propionyl-l-Carnitine; POC, Proof of Concept; RCT, Randomized Control Trial; SD, Standard Deviation; Tx, treatment

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