ROP screening was performed for all extremely preterm infants by qualified ophthalmologists with expertise in ROP in accordance with the Chinese guidelines for the examination and treatment of ROP [15]. The choice to conduct additional ROP screening was determined according to the results of the initial screening. Termination of ROP screening was determined according to vascular development in the retina or up to 45 weeks of corrected GA [15]. ROP was subdivided into stages 1–5 based on the International Classification of ROP [16]. Mild ROP was defined as having stage 1 or stage 2 ROP in zone II or III without plus disease [12]. Type 1 ROP was defined as any stage ROP in zone I with plus disease; stage 3 ROP in zone I without plus disease; or stage 2 or 3 ROP in zone II with plus disease [17]. Type 2 ROP was defined as stage 1 or 2 ROP in zone I without plus disease; or stage 3 ROP in zone II without plus disease [17]. Severe ROP was defined as any prethreshold, any stage 3, or any threshold ROP [12].

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