HUVECs were allocated into seven different groups as follows; the non-treated Control cells; Pal; DHA, DHA+ Pal; Insulin, Insulin +Pal, and Insulin + DHA + Pal. To induce atherosclerotic changes, cells were treated with a culture medium containing 1 mM Pal (Cat no. P0500-10G, Sigma) and 2% FBS for 48 h. We also incubated HUVECs with 50 μM insulin for the induction of hyperinsulinemia conditions for 48 h. After completion of hyperinsulinemia condition and atherosclerotic changes, we added the 50μMDHA (Cat no. D253425MG, Sigma) to the respective groups and cells allowed to expose to DHA for 48 h.

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