Changes in genes and gene expression

Gene evaluation methods used in biological mechanism studies of microwave radiation mainly include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH), comet assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), DNA sequencing and genotyping methods.

PCR methods, such as real-time PCR and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), have been widely used to investigate the effect of microwave radiation on the expression of genes involved in the stress response, signal transduction pathways, apoptosis, neurotransmitter receptors, cytokines, tight junction proteins, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis [14, 17, 18, 38, 68, 223, 224].

ISH was used to determine the expression of stress-related genes such as heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and c-fos mRNAs [225]. The comet assay is widely used to assess DNA damage [97, 191, 226]. EMSA was a technique used to investigate the interaction of DNA-binding proteins and their sequences. EMSA was used to examine the binding activities of a transcription factor and DNA after microwave exposure [68]. DNA sequencing was used to assess the variation in the promoter region of the 2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR2B) gene and analyze the relationships between brain damage and NR2B gene polymorphisms caused by microwave radiation [68].

Furthermore, both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to assess the occurrence of micronuclei induced by microwave exposure [227].

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