Methods for the evaluation of structural injuries

With light microscopy, the morphological changes in the microstructure of either animal or cell models after exposure to microwave radiation could be observed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining or special dyeing methods. HE staining is one of the most widespread methods for observing the microstructure of various organs, such as the brain, heart, reproductive organs, and endocrine organs [3, 4, 6, 12, 13, 15, 19, 67, 73, 79, 89, 92, 104, 107, 121, 205, 206]. The function of special dyeing methods is to demonstrate specific cellular components. Special dyeing methods were used to observe changes in specific cellular structures of nerve and testicular tissues in studies of microwave radiation effects [17, 40, 65, 92, 116, 207, 208].

Special dyeing methods used to analyze nerve tissue injury induced by microwave radiation included cresyl violet, toluidine blue, Fluoro-Jade B, Golgi, and Luxol fast blue staining. Cresyl violet and toluidine blue staining were designed to observe Nissl bodies in neurons [17, 116, 207]. De Gannes et al. [116] reported that both cresyl violet staining and Fluoro-Jade B methods indicated the occurrence of dark neurons and neuronal degeneration by observing the states of the Nissl bodies. This study suggested that the latter was a more reliable method of neuronal degeneration evaluation induced by microwave radiation. Golgi staining was used in dendritic spine density examination [40]. Luxol fast blue staining was implemented to observe nerve myelin [92].

The special dyeing method for examining the changes in testicular structure induced by microwave radiation was toluidine blue staining [208]. Toluidine blue staining was used for seminiferous tubule observation, which might be a simple method to observe spermatozoa [208].

Electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) [3, 4, 12, 13, 36, 65, 67, 79, 81, 104, 107, 209, 210] and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) [38], was used to observe ultrastructural changes in neurons, germ cells, and cardiomyocytes after microwave radiation.

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