Many studies showed that microwave radiation might cause cardiac physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, etc.), biochemical (myocardial enzyme, ion concentration, etc.) and endocrine dysfunctions.

The most widely used method for evaluating the effect on cardiac physiological function following microwave radiation was electrocardiography (ECG) [197199]. Furthermore, photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors and sphygmomanometers could also be used to investigate the effect of microwave radiation on heart rate and blood pressure [106, 200, 201]. Fluorescence was used to measure the changes in cardiac biochemical functioning induced by microwave radiation [79, 147]. Radioimmunoassay was the method of choice to evaluate cardiac endocrine function after exposure to microwave radiation [202].

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