We will include studies that measure motor and neurobehavioral function. Outcomes assessed at any time points but up to 2 years of age will be considered.

Motor functions may include quality of movement, gross and fine motor skills, developmental milestones, visual-spatial, visual-motor integration, balance, and coordination [6]. The tools used to measure motor functions could be Prechtl’s General Movements Assessment (GMA), Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP), Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS), Neuromotor Behavioral Assessment (NMBA), Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), Peabody Developmental Motor Scale (PDMS), and Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID).

Neurobehavior is measured in terms of the sensory and autonomic nervous system; organization of state (calm, excited, irritable) and self-regulation (hand to mouth responses); language, attention, socio-emotional development; and executive function [7]. Neurobehavior could be measured using Assessment of Preterm Infants Behavior (APIB), Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), Neurobehavioral Assessment of Preterm Infants (NAPI), and NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS).

Secondary outcomes are changes in parental behaviors or responsivity captured through videotaped interactions or observations and measured by any of the validated scales. Parental satisfaction will be measured by questionnaires and interviews. Factors such as age, time of recruitment and follow-up, settings, FCC providers, intensity, and frequency of intervention that might influence an infant’s development will be considered for the review. We will also consider potential harms or risks of FCC intervention as reported by included studies, which may include, but not limited to, adverse events related to neonate, e.g., infections, and adverse events related to parent, e.g., anxiety.

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