It was reported that microwave radiation might cause damage to reproductive functions, such as changes in sex hormone (such as testosterone and estradiol) levels and sperm parameters [7, 19, 191193]. Enzyme immunoassays [122] and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) [19, 193195] were widely used in studies of sex hormone levels after exposure to microwave radiation. A hemocytometer was implemented to assess spermatozoa motility and count [122, 191, 196]. Eosin-nigrosin staining and supra-vital staining could also be used to study sperm viability [122, 191, 192].

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