Krasiejów became famous for the discovery of numerous fossilized bones of Upper Triassic amphibians and reptiles, which have been extracted from clay deposits in the closed mine since the 1980s (e.g., [31, 32]), including no less than 14 taxa new to science [33]. In the Krasiejów area, approximately 225 million years ago, there were swampy areas located on the shore of a large lake, reaching Olsztyn in northern Poland and western France [34]. A wide river delta also entered the lake in this area. In Krasiejów, there are layers of variegated cherry-red silt and claystones that are deposits of late Triassic rivers and lakes. These deposits sedimented under diverse conditions, with periods of marine transgression and terrestrial episodes, and anaerobic reduction conditions in mud swamp marginal lakes were widespread. The existence of Triassic clays was discovered by the German geologist and paleontologist, Carl Ferdinand von Roemer [35], at the bottom of Mała Panew (in German: Malapane) river near the steel plant in Ozimek (in German: Ozimek). Numerous organic remnants remained in Krasiejów clay due to the optimal concentration of basal mineral salts and a large amount of slime deposits. A Triassic river played an essential role in this process. In the deposits at the bottom of lakes or rivers, bacteria decompose organic substances deposited on silt or sand, using oxygen and emitting poisonous hydrogen sulphide. On the site of the former clay mine in Krasiejów, there are several types of coloured silt forming layers of different thicknesses (Fig. (Fig.2),2), which contain relatively large amounts of aluminium oxide (13.82%), calcium (6.90%), iron (5.72%), magnesium (3.50%), potassium (2.77%), and silicon (2.57%) [36]; therefore, after proper preparation, these clays can be used as medicinal treatments. It was also confirmed that most families in Krasiejów had the clay in the home medicine cabinet from roughly 1900 to 1960, and the peak of its use came after the opening of the brickyard.

Deposits of medicinal clay in the mine in Krasiejów (1990s, photo by Krzysztof Spałek)

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