Sample size was determined by the data saturation approach. We conducted in-depth interviews with patients and healthcare professionals until when two or more additional interviews would not add any new view points, i.e. the point of data saturation [28, 29]. We included 16 patients and 17 healthcare professionals in this study. We used non-probability purposive sampling methods to select participants for interviews. We included both outpatients and inpatients. Patients were recruited at the outpatient gastro-intestinal oncology clinic and solid tumor ward of the UCI. To ensure a diverse sample, patients were selected purposively ensuring we capture patients with a range of characteristics including stage of disease, age and sex. For the healthcare professionals, selection was based on those who were taking care of patients with cancer of esophagus during the study period.

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