The PDQ-4+ [45] is a self-report PD assessment scale based on the DSM-4. Items are answered as “yes” (scored as 1) or “no” (scored as 0). The Chinese version of the PDQ-4+ [46] used in the current study contains 107 items constituting 12 PD-type sub-scales. The PDQ-4+ has been used reliably in PD studies in China [47, 48], with Cronbach’s α values ranging from 0.49 (Passive-Aggressive) to 0.72 (Depressive).

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