Studies of effectiveness seek to examine the outcomes of interventions under circumstances that more closely approximate a real-world setting. Effectiveness studies, therefore, typically use an RCT design, where the new treatment is compared to other interventions (including sham intervention when delivered in a pragmatic plan of management), such as the standard of practice for the patient population being studied [49]. In our review, we classified an RCT as an effectiveness trial if SMT was delivered according to a pragmatic plan of management regardless of the comparison group.

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