The full-length PID-5 [43] is a 220-item self-report scale developed in the USA to index 25 lower-order trait facets (Cronbach’s α, 0.72–0.96) organized into five higher-order trait domains of personality pathology (Cronbach’s α, 0.84–0.96) [43]. We invited two psychologists to translate the PID-5 scale from American English into Chinese; and then it was translated back into English by a bilingual teacher, with repeated revisions to ensure translation accuracy. We evaluated the scale in 10 undergraduate students, after the final adjustment of items, this version of PID-5 was set down (concrete steps were shown in Fig. 1). The PID-5-BF [44] was developed by extracting 25 items from the original PID-5, representing 21 of the 25 trait facets (facets not included: Restricted Affectivity, Rigid Perfectionism, Submissiveness, and Suspiciousness). Items are rated on a 0–3 Likert-type scale, with higher scores representing greater dysfunction. Each of the five higher-order domains is represented by five items (Negative Affect: Items 8, 9, 10, 11, and 15; Detachment: Items 4, 13, 14, 16, and 18; Antagonism: Items 17, 19, 20, 22, and 25; Disinhibition: Items 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6; and Psychoticism: Items 7, 12, 21, 23, and 24).

Flowchart of procedures for translation of the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF)

The PDQ-4+ [45] is a self-report PD assessment scale based on the DSM-4. Items are answered as “yes” (scored as 1) or “no” (scored as 0). The Chinese version of the PDQ-4+ [46] used in the current study contains 107 items constituting 12 PD-type sub-scales. The PDQ-4+ has been used reliably in PD studies in China [47, 48], with Cronbach’s α values ranging from 0.49 (Passive-Aggressive) to 0.72 (Depressive).

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