This questionnaire included questions on the participants’ education level, occupation, income status, wanted or unwanted pregnancy, gravidity, and obstetrics history. The validity of this questionnaire was confirmed using qualitative content validity.

This questionnaire was designed by Wijma in 2002 to measure FOC [31]. DFS is a self-assessed questionnaire consisting of 10 questions with five items having positive meaning [1, 3, 5, 7, 10] and the remaining five items having negative meaning [2, 4, 6, 8, 9]. The questions are scored based on a 10-point Likert scale ranging from (Strongly disagree = 1 to strongly agree = 10). The positive items are scored in reverse. The possible score range is from 10 to 100 that is calculated by summing up the total scores of the questionnaire. Higher scores indicate greater FOC. This scale has an acceptable reliability (α = 88 %) [25].

This questionnaire was designed in 1970 to measure state and trait anxiety [35]. This inventory consists of 40 questions, 20 of which are related to state anxiety (expressing personal feelings) and the remaining 20 questions measure the trait anxiety (general and common emotions). This scale is scored based on a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (lowest level of anxiety) to 4 (highest level of anxiety). Items 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, 15, 16, 19, 20 (state anxiety scale) and items 21, 23, 26, 27, 30, 33, 34, 36, 39 (trait anxiety scale) are scored in reverse. The possible score range is from 20 to 80 for each scale, with scores 20–31,32–42, 43–53,54–64, 65–75, and 76 and above indicating mild, moderate to low, and moderate to high, and relatively severe, severe, and very severe anxiety, respectively. The reliability of this questionnaire was confirmed based on previous studies in Iran with Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.84 and content validity [9].

This inventory was designed in 1993 by Lowe [36]. It consists of 34 questions in two sections. The first section contains 17 questions that measure outcome expectancies. The second section also includes 17 questions that measure self-efficacy expectancies. Questions are scored based on a 10-point Likert scale and the possible score range is from 17 to 170, with higher scores indicating higher outcome expectancy and more self-efficacy expectancy. This inventory enjoys a high internal consistency (0.84–0.91) [37].

This questionnaire was designed by Van den Berg in 1989 to measure pregnancy-related fears and concerns. The short form of this questionnaire consists of 17 items. Exploratory factor analysis of the data of this questionnaire revealed five factors: Factor 1: Fear of Childbirth (3 questions), Factor 2: Fear of giving birth to a physically or mentally handicapped child (4 questions), Factor 3: Fear of change in marital relationships (4 questions), Factor 4: fear of changes in mood and its effects on the child (3 questions), and Factor 5: self-centered fears or fear of changes in the mother’s personal life (3 questions). The final score is obtained by adding up the scores of each statement. Each score is rated based on a 7-point Likert scale, and the possible pregnancy-related anxiety scores range from 17 to 119 [38]. The psychometric properties of this questionnaire have been reviewed and approved by Karamoozian et al. (2016) in Iran. Its reliability was also confirmed (α = 0.78) and ranged from 0.69 to 0.76 for each of the five factors [39].

Childbirth Attitude Questionnaire (CAQ), developed by Hartmann (1988) [40], consisted of 16 questions, and was revised by Louis. It is used to measure fear of childbirth. Questions are answered based on a 4-point Likert scale (Not at all = 1, Very low = 2, Moderate = 3, High = 4). The possible score range is from 14 to 56, with higher scores indicating higher FOC. Given that there was no cut-off point for FOC, similar international studies were considered to determine the cut-off point, and the median score (i.e. 28 or more) was considered as FOC. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to determine the internal consistency (α = 0.83) [32].

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