4. Short form of Lowe’s childbirth self‐efficacy inventory
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Psychometric properties of the Persian version of delivery fear scale (DFS) in Iran
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, Feb 18, 2021; DOI: 10.1186/s12884-021-03634-7

This inventory was designed in 1993 by Lowe [36]. It consists of 34 questions in two sections. The first section contains 17 questions that measure outcome expectancies. The second section also includes 17 questions that measure self-efficacy expectancies. Questions are scored based on a 10-point Likert scale and the possible score range is from 17 to 170, with higher scores indicating higher outcome expectancy and more self-efficacy expectancy. This inventory enjoys a high internal consistency (0.84–0.91) [37].

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