About 25 ml of midstream urine was collected into plastic screw cap vials after a brisk exercise between 10:00 am and 2:00 pm. Gross haematuria was determined by visual observation while micro haematuria was determined with the aid of reagent strips (Combistix) following the manufacturers guide (CYBOW™ 11 M a series of Health Mate Ref 0974, DFI Co., Ltd, Gomo-ro, 388–25 Korea). Following agitation, 10 ml of urine was drawn using a syringe and filtered through a polycarbonate membrane filter (STERLITECH corporation, Washington, USA). The filter membrane was examined microscopically for the presence of schistosome eggs as described by Cheesbrough [25]. Schistosome egg density was expressed as the number of eggs in 10 ml urine (eggs/10 ml) and the intensity of infection was categorised as either light (< 50 eggs/10 ml) or heavy infection (≥ 50 eggs/10 ml) [32, 33].

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