The ethics approval (2014SYYLSZ-018) of this study was granted from Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, South China University of Technology. A total of 547 subjects were enrolled from south Xinjiang of China, and were divided into two groups: T2D (N = 275) and non-T2D (N = 272) group. All adult (age ≥ 18 years) participants were diagnosed at baseline with T2D referring to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations [16]: (1) a random serum glucose levels ≥ 11.1 mmol/L in a participant with symptoms of marked hyperglycemia including polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss; (2) a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels ≥ 7.0 mmol/L; (3) 2 h plasma glucose levels ≥ 11.1 mmol/L via oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); (4) plasma glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) concentration ≥ 6.5%. The non-T2D participants who underwent medical examination at the same hospital during the same period were enrolled as the control group. Any participants combined with HTN, CAD, HF, AF and stroke at the enrollment were ruled out from the study. Standard analytical methods were performed to assess blood biochemical indexes on admission to the study. Echocardiogram was carried out on enrollment to the study referring to relevant recommendations [17].

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