Studies eligible for our systematic review met the following inclusion criteria: 1) English language; 2) published from database inception to May 15, 2019 in a peer-reviewed journal; 3) investigated non-musculoskeletal disorders; 4) randomized controlled trial that investigated the efficacy or effectiveness of spinal manipulation, mobilization, or traction (all types including manual/assisted); 5) study population included all ages; 6) included at least one outcome that is specific to the non-musculoskeletal disorder under investigation and measured at the patient level; and 7) the number of randomized participants per group was ≥20.

We did not include the following study types: 1) guidelines, letters, editorials, commentaries, unpublished manuscripts, dissertations, government reports, books or book chapters, conference proceedings, meeting abstracts, lectures and addresses, consensus development statements, or guideline statements; 2) cadaveric or animal studies; 3) non-clinical studies (studies that aim to understand the physiological effects of spinal manipulation); 4) pilot studies aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an RCT; and 5) studies in which the effect of spinal manipulation, mobilization, or traction could not be isolated (e.g, studies where spinal manipulation was included in a multimodal program of care).

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