A tensile testing machine (ElectroPuls E10000; Instron) with a 10-kN load cell installed to the crosshead was used for biomechanical testing. Custom-made testing fixtures were secured to the actuator and to an X-Y table mounted to the base plate, respectively. The embedded bones were fixated within cup holders at a knee flexion angle of 90°. This flexion angle constitutes the most critical angle for the PCL, as it is maximally loaded in that position,11,28 and was therefore chosen for biomechanical testing.

A preload of 30 N was applied, and subsequently, the machine’s displacement was set to zero. Afterward, 10 precycles between 0 and 2 mm at 0.5 Hz, reducing settling effects, were performed before a pull to failure at 200 mm/min.53 Data were recorded using Wavematrix software (Instron) at an acquisition rate of 1000 Hz. Load-displacement curves were evaluated to determine the PCL function zone of the native ligament as well as the stiffness during pull-to-failure and ligament measurements. All specimens were constantly kept moist using a physiologic saline solution during preparation and testing.

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