Skin physiological parameters were collected in a temperature and humidity conditioned room (20 ± 1 °C, 50 ± 5% relative humidity) after an acclimatization period of 30 min for each study subject. The investigators for each device were fixed to avoid any personnel errors. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured employing a Vapometer® (Delfin Technologies Ltd, Kuopio, Finland). Skin hydration levels in the stratum corneum were determined with a MositurMeter D Compact device (Delfin Technologies Ltd, Kuopio, Finland). Sebum was determined by Sebumeter® SM815 (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). The level of sebum was expressed as μg/cm2. Skin pH was measured with Skin-pH-Meter PH 900 (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). Skin color (L*a*b) and pore were assessed by ImageJ software based on photos obtained from the VISIA-CR (Canfield Scientific Inc, Fairfield, NJ). The value increase for L*(lightness) represents from black to white; the value for a* is from green to red; the values for b* indicate blue to yellow. Porphyrin was visually graded according to the reference image on a scale from “1” to “3” based on the VISIA-CR photos. In this scale, “1” to “3” represent mild/moderate/severe deposition of porphyrin under the UV light source. The final score of the porphyrin, on a 3–9 scale, is the sum of scores from three trained persons based on the above scoring criteria. The frequency of skincare was obtained from volunteers by questionnaire; here, we mainly considered the frequency, whereas the detailed skincare products were not taken into consideration.

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