To assay how a functional diet would benefit skin mucosa functionality two diets were formulated as follows: a control diet (Diet C), equivalent to commercial diet containing 51% crude protein, 17% crude fat and 20.6 MJ/kg gross energy that fulfill the nutritional requirements of juvenile sea bream. Based on this basal formulation, another diet named Diet SDPP was manufactured where Fishmeal LT70 was substituted by 3% SDPP (Apetein GS, APC Europe SL, Granollers, Spain; Table 1 ). Diets were manufactured by Sparos Lda (Portugal). In brief, main ingredients were ground (<250 μm) in a micropulverizer hammer mill (Hosokawa Micron). Powder ingredients and oils were then mixed according to the target formulation in a paddle mixer (RM90; Mainca). All diets were manufactured by temperature-controlled extrusion (pellet sizes: 0.8 and 1.5 mm) by means of a low-shear extruder (P55; Italplast). Upon extrusion, all feed batches were dried in a convection oven (OP 750-UF; LTE Scientific) for 4 h at 45°C.

Ingredient list and proximate composition on dry weight basis (%) of experimental diets.

*Gross energy content was estimated by using the following: total carbohydrate = 17.2 J/kg, fat = 39.5 J/kg and protein = 23.5 J/kg.

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