The novel object recognition (NOR) test has emerged as the most popular test for assessing a rodent’s ability to recognize a previously presented stimulus and evaluate nonspatial memory (Antunes and Biala, 2012; Lueptow, 2017). To test a discrete form of learning and memory that involves the hippocampal formation, animals were tested in boxes from the open field task. After 5 min of open field, we considered animals habituated to the arena. Thus, each animal was exposed for another 5 min to a pair of objects that differed in shape, surface color, contrast, and texture (training session). Three hours and 30 min after the initial exposure, mice were reexposed, in the same arena, for 8 min to one of the original objects and a novel object (test session). The objects were previously shown to induce approximately equal time of exploration in C57BL6/J and were located 10 cm from the side walls. These objects were randomized so that each object could be used either as a familiar or novel object in any given session (Lueptow, 2017). In all tests, the time spent exploring each object was recorded. A mouse was considered to engage in exploratory behavior if it touched the object with its forepaw or nose or sniffed the object within a distance of 1.5 cm. After every exposure, the objects and the cage were wiped with water and then with 30% v/v alcohol: distilled water solution to eliminate odor cues.

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