Anhedonia, defined as a decreased sensation of pleasure, represents a key symptom of MDD and can be assessed in mice by measuring the preference for a palatable solution (Alboni et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2018). The sucrose preference test consisted of a 3-day training and a test phase performed in the 24 h period following LPS injection, when LPS is known to induce a decrease in sucrose preference. Over the dark phase of the light cycle, single-housed mice were trained with two identical bottles containing either a freshly prepared 1% sucrose solution or water. To control for a side preference in drinking behavior, the position of the two identical bottles was switched every day, and to reduce neophobia in the week before, the test animals were habituated to drink from two identical bottles filled with water in their home cage. Prior to and during testing, mice were not food- and water-deprived. Fluid consumption (grams) was measured by weighing bottles before and after each session. Sucrose preference was calculated as the percentage of sucrose intake volume over the total volume of fluid intake in a 24 h period (Liu et al., 2018).

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