Initial tests of association with experiencing NFOD were calculated using Pearson’s chi-square tests and independent samples t-tests. We used log binomial regression to identify correlates of experiencing NFOD because the prevalence of recent NFOD was high (42.6%). All variables with a p-value < 0.10 in bivariate analyses were considered for inclusion in the multivariable analysis. Multiple correlations were identified among our measures of structural vulnerability and substance use; as a result, we selected those variables for the final model that maximized model fit. Although we collected information about non-injection drug use, our analysis focuses on the number of drugs injected as injection drug use conveys a higher risk of overdose [40]. AIC was used to compare models, and the Hosmer–Lemeshow test was used to assess goodness of fit. We used Stata Version 15 for all analyses.

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