For endothelial cell differentiation, primary hPDMSCs were cultured in endothelial differentiation medium. The medium was prepared with DMEM with 0.1 mM β-mercaptoethanol (Sigma, USA), 50 ng/ml recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rh-VEGF, Sigma, USA), 10 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (rh-bFGF, Sigma, USA), and 5% FBS. The differentiation medium was replaced every 3–5 days. On the 8th–10th day, the differentiated cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, and immunocytochemical analysis was performed with mouse anti-human von Willebrand factor (vWF, Maxim, China) according to the manufacturer’s instructions [22].

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