Participants reported substances used in the past 6 months by administration route. Injection drugs included cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, heroin, prescription opioids (e.g., Oxycontin, Percocet, and Codeine), fentanyl, buprenorphine or Suboxone, and speedball (cocaine and heroin). We used these data to create a measure ranging from 1 to 7 to reflect the number of drugs recently injected. Drugs used by other routes of administration included cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, heroin, prescription opioids, fentanyl, buprenorphine or Suboxone, sedatives, tranquilizers, stimulants, and hallucinogens. We collapsed non-injection drug use by drug type (e.g., smoking and snorting a given drug were combined to a single measure of non-injection use of the drug). We also created a dichotomous measure that indicated where persons typically used drugs: private (at your home or at someone else’s home) versus public (on the street; at a park; a stairwell in a building or business; an abandoned building; a public bathroom, at a restaurant; on a bus or train; in a car, truck, or other vehicle; in the woods) locations [19]. Participants who selected “other” location (n = 12) or refused to answer (n = 1) were recoded as missing.

We also asked if persons typically used drugs alone versus with one or more persons. Participants indicated (yes/no) if they tried to quit using drugs in the past 6 months. Finally, we asked participants how many times in the past 6 months they witnessed a fatal overdose and how many times they witnessed a nonfatal overdose. These responses were recoded to a single binary variable comparing witnessing no overdoses (fatal or nonfatal) in the past 6 months to witnessing at least one (fatal or nonfatal) overdose in the past 6 months; n = 2 participants refused to answer both questions and were recoded to missing.

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