Colony formation, wound healing, and transwell assays were conducted as in prior reports [14]. To measure colony formation, we added 200 GC cells per well to a 6‐well plate, followed by culture for 14 days. Cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, stained with 1% crystal violet, and colonies comprising > 50 cells were counted. For wound healing assays, cells were seeded on 6-well plates, grown to confluency, and scratched with a 200 μL pipette tip. Wound recovery was observed under an IX71 inverted microscope (Olympus) after 0 and 48 h. In transwell assays, cells were seeded on 24-well transwell plates (Corning, New York, NY) to measure their invasive capacity. Inserts were coated with 60 µl of Matrigel (BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, NJ). After 24 h, invaded cells were fixed and stained with 0.1% crystal violet solution containing formaldehyde. The numbers of invaded cells were counted in five randomly-selected fields under an IX71 inverted microscope (Olympus).

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