The sample size was determined using the double proportion formula with computer-based Epi info7 software Stat Cal by using the proportion difference approach. Among several exposure variables, selection of the appropriate exposure variables in controls was done based on the main interest variables of cases of the determinant for diabetic ketoacidosis using the assumptions; 95% confidence interval (Zα/2 = 1.96), power of 80% (Zβ =0.84), case to control ratio 1:3, the odds ratio to be detected ≥2. Then the calculated sample size was 371 [12]. Thus, adding 10% of the sample size to the larger sample size 371, the final required sample size was 408 (102 cases and 306 controls).

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