DCS was used to map brain function before surgeries, wherein targeted transient dysfunction was induced via electrical stimulation, providing causal functional inference. DCS revealed which node-pairs were PN positive and language negative for brain regions, in the following manner. In order to map brain function using DCS, a patient performed three tasks: a PN task, an auditory repetition task, and an auditory naming task. During each task, a pair of electrodes (node-pair) were stimulated with an electric current. If the stimulation disrupted the PN task, then that node-pair was considered PN positive. Each task was tested separately. If the current stimulation did not disrupt any of the three language tasks tested individually, then that node-pair was considered to be language negative. DCS caused a reversible temporary lesion, and allowed the doctor to assess the importance of that node-pair for brain resection. Note: The PN task for DCS is different from the PN task done for analysis using NetDI for research purposes.

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