The Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°), enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were used to determine the feasibility of the adsorption process based on the temperature changes. This helps to describe whether the adsorption process is spontaneous, exothermic or endothermic. The equations are


where ΔG° is the free energy (J K mol−1), T (K) and R (J K mol−1) are the temperature and universal gas constant for the adsorption, respectively and KC is the equilibrium constant.

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