The aim of the reproducibility checks was to recover the target original values by repeating the original analysis (as described in the original articles and any additional documentation such as supplementary materials, codebook, analysis scripts) upon the original data. Attempting alternative analyses was outside the scope of the study, even if the original analysis seemed suboptimal or erroneous.

To minimize error and facilitate reproducibility, each reproducibility check was conducted by at least two team members who documented the reanalysis process in an R Markdown report (available at If articles were initially classified as not fully reproducible, we emailed the author(s) of the article and used any additional information they provided to try and resolve the issues before a final classification was determined. Additional procedural details are available in electronic supplementary material, section A.

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