Cytological specimens were collected from the cervix using cotton-tipped applicators. Because Japanese guidelines for gynecological practice published in 2011, 2014, and 2017 recommend using a cotton-tipped applicator for cervical cancer screening during pregnancy. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) was performed starting in April 2013. Ten and eight patients underwent LBC during pregnancy and within 6 months after parturition, respectively. A smear preparation method was applied for the remaining patients. The conventional Papanicolaou method was employed for cell staining, and the recommendations of the Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology, published in 2014, was used for diagnosis. In patients with suspicious or pathological cytology results, punch biopsy under colposcopy was conducted for histological evaluation. Neither HPV typing nor p16 immunocytochemistry was performed for cytological diagnosis in this study.

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