Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were cut into serial 3 μm slices with a microtome for further immunohistochemical processing. All immunohistochemical analyses were carried out using the Ventana Benchmark Ultra system (Ventana, Tucson, AZ). Immunohistochemistry for T-cell subtypes was carried out as previously published.7,8 PD-L1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal mouse anti-human PD-L1 antibody (1 : 50, Clone 22C3, Dako). Human placenta for PD-L1 and human non-malignant lymph nodes for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were used as control tissue.

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