Pregnant women 18 to 50 years old, with a singleton pregnancy undergoing elective CS at 37 weeks or over.

Participant is able to give consent and agree to sample storage.

Participant agrees to be contacted for follow-up.

Participant contributing to the study needs to be able to read and/or understand English.

Multiple pregnancy

Previous CS that resulted in a surgical site infection

Emergency CS

Any non-elective CS including those requiring early delivery without threat to maternal or foetal health that were not previously planned.

Body mass index (BMI) less than 18 kg/m2 or greater than or equal to 45 kg/m2 (at time of first pregnancy appointment and at time of delivery).

Currently enrolled in a randomized controlled trial for an intervention to reduce post-operative surgical site infection

Diabetes (type 1, type 2 or gestational)

Hypertension

Renal disease

Cardiovascular disease (e.g. maternal structural cardiac disease)

Liver disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis)

Cephalosporin or penicillin allergy

Administration of antibiotic within 1 week prior to delivery

Suspected pre-existing infection (including chorioamnionitis)

Autoimmune disease (e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis)

Chronic use of corticosteroid

History of wound breakdown in an abdominal surgery

Prior laparotomy for any indication (e.g. previous ovarian cystectomy or previous bowel surgery)

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