To determine the effect of EO on pupal emergence into adults, two types of assays such as volatile and contact toxicity protocols as described by Kumar et al. [10] were followed. Twenty pupae (3 days old) were placed in 250 mL conical flasks (Fig. 1c) containing respective concentrations ranging from 20 µL to 100 µL/0.25 L of air. The observations were recorded up to 6 days post exposure at 28 ± 2 °C and RH 65 ± 5%, and the percent (%) reduction of emergence into adults or inhibition rate (%IR) was calculated by following the formula;

where Cn is number of emerged insects in control set, and Tn corresponds to the number of emerged adults after EO treatment.

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