Numerical dot array stimuli were created using Panamath (version 1.22; Halberda et al., 2008). Two arrays of dots were simultaneously presented, to the left and right on the screen. Participants were instructed to select the most numerous dot array by pressing the corresponding response pad button during the response window. For half of all trials, cumulative surface area and numerosity matched in order to control for effects of visuospatial extent cues as opposed to pure numerosity processing. Two numerosity ratios were used in order to mimic numerical distances featured in the symbolic tasks: near-distance trials were represented by a ratio of 4:3 (e.g, 12 vs 15 dots), and far-distance trials were represented by a ratio of 1:2 (e.g., 10 vs 20 dots). Each dot array featured between 8 and 26 dots in total, in order to discourage enumeration and to avoid the presentation of stimuli within the subitizing range (e.g., Trick and Pylyshyn, 1994).

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