The oncogenic phenotype assays, including cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell invasion, were performed as described previously 21. For cell proliferation, equal numbers of cells (~1000) were seeded into 96-well plates (Thermo Fisher Scientific, #08-772-2C), and cell viability was determined with an MTT kit (Sigma-Aldrich, #114650007001) at 1-day interval for five days. For cell colony formation assay, equal numbers of cells (~500) were seeded into 6-well plates and grown at 37 °C for 14 days with medium renewal every three days. After fixing with 4% paraformaldehyde (Sigma-Aldrich, #P6148), colonies were stained with 0.1% crystal violet (Sigma-Aldrich, #C0775). For cell invasion assay, equal amounts of cells (~500) were suspended into DMEM without FBS and seeded into the upper Boyden chamber, the lower chambers chamber contained DMEM with 10% FBS. The whole Boyden chambers were placed at 37 °C overnight. Cells that invaded into the lower chambers were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde, stained with 0.1% crystal violet, and photographed with a microscope (Nikon, Japan, #SMZ800).

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