Total RNA was extracted from cells and biopsies using an RNeasy Plus Kit (Qiagen, Germany, #74134) following the manufacturer's protocol. The concentrations of RNA samples were quantified with a Nanodrop instrument (Thermo Fisher Scientific, #ND-2000) and 1.0 µg total RNA was reversely transcribed with a PrimeScript RT reagent kit (Takara, China, #RR0378) to produce cDNA. The obtained cDNA samples were diluted 20-fold, followed by RT-qPCR analyses with a SYBR Green quantitative RT-qPCR kit (Sigma-Aldrich, #QR0100). The primers were listed in Supplementary Table 2. The relative expression levels of different genes were normalized to β-Actin according to the 2-∆∆Ct method.

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